Research shows that the most effective way to learn is to attach what you are trying to learn to what you already know. People should grapple with ideas until they create an understanding that makes sense to them. When students learn in this manner, rather than having someone show them the right answer, the learning is meaningful. The learner, in a sense, constructs his or her own knowledge. When this type of learning occurs, the knowledge is sustained over time and can be retrieved and reconstructed when needed.